The application of blood platelets for hair restoration is sometimes difficult to understand in the context of the many hair restoration products available. At our Institute we like to present the hard science to show you theoretically how this works at the cellular and molecular level and the leading research institutes and publications behind this research.
At the Darrow Stem Cell Institute we utilize Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) not only to accelerate repair of damaged joints, but also for the regeneration of hair.
According to the National Institutes of Health, Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss in both men and women. In men, this condition is also known as male-pattern baldness. Hair is lost in a well-defined pattern, beginning above both temples. Over time, the hairline recedes to form a characteristic “M” shape. Hair also thins at the crown (near the top of the head), often progressing to partial or complete baldness. The pattern of hair loss in women differs from male-pattern baldness. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head, and the hairline does not recede. Androgenetic alopecia in women rarely leads to total baldness.
WHY ANOTHER HAIR LOSS TREATMENT WHEN THERE ARE SO MANY TO CHOOSE FROM?
In examining the benefits of PRP for hair growth, doctors at university medical centers in Greece published their review of PRP’s effect on androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata.At the beginning of their paper, the Greek doctors answered a common question: why another hair loss treatment when there are so many to choose from?
Here is their answer: “Despite available therapeutic options, the search for new, more effective hair restoration treatment is constant. Platelet-rich plasma could be the more effective treatment. . . Growth factors in platelets’ granules of PRP bind in the bulge area of hair follicle, promoting hair growth making PRP a potential useful therapeutic tool for alopecias, without major adverse effects.” (1)
Doctors at the Santosh Medical College in India documented similar findings, in their study in the Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, doctors conducted a study of 10 patients with hair loss. In the introduction of the study the doctors acknowledged that Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has shown remarkable beneficial effects without any major adverse reactions in the treatment of androgenic alopecia, as did the Greek doctors.
Here is what the Indian doctors found: The growth factors in autologous (your blood) PRP induces the proliferation of dermal papilla cell (Hair follicles). Ten patients were given PRP injections prepared from their own blood on the affected area of alopecia over a period of 3 months at interval of 2-3 weeks and results were assessed. Three months after the treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the hair counts, hair thickness, hair root strength, and overall alopecia. They concluded that PRP appears to be a cheap, effective, and promising therapy for androgenic alopecia with no major adverse effects.(2)
In another study from Greek researchers lead by the Democritus University of Thrace, 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia had three PRP treatment sessions performed every 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy.At 6 months and at 1 year, hair volume was significantly increased.(3) Images from this study:
In an October 2017 research study published in the European journal of medical research, doctors confirmed earlier research that suggests one of the ways PRP promotes hair growth and increase the number of hair follicles is by inducing angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels that brings growth factors to the scalp.(4)
This agrees with earlier research from the journal Dermatologic surgery suggesting Platelet-rich plasma therapy stimulates hair growth through the promotion of vascularization and angiogenesis (the creation of new blood vessels that brings new blood circulation to the scalp), as well as encourages hair follicles to enter and extend the duration of the anagen phase (the most active growth portion of the hair growth cycle).(5)
In the Journal of cosmetic dermatology, Elghblawi Ebtisam MD, a Libyan Amazagh researcher, published her findings in support of PRP for reversing skin aging and hair restoration. Here is what she wrote in this September 2017 study:
The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets (the small particles that house a lot of healing growth factors include those that stimulate hair growth), and in the secretion of proteins which make the healing process go and the cellular level. (So in general, you have growth factors released from the platelet particles and directed by protein messages.)
“(PRP treatments) restores natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it.
Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage.
PRP proved to promote wound healing and aid in facelift, volumetric skin, skin rejuvenation, regeneration, and reconstruction; improve wrinkling; stimulate hair growth; increase hair follicle viability and its survival rate; prevent apoptosis; increase and prolong the anagen hair growth stage; and delay the progression to catagen hair cycle stage with increased density in hair loss and hair transplantation.”(6)
Dr. Ebtisam’s findings were based on a comprehensive review of the current medical literature.
In August 2016, a team of researchers from Patna Medical College and Hospital in India also published in the Journal of cosmetic dermatology that Platelet-rich plasma has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of androgenic alopecia with its growth factor properties in accelerating the dermal papilla. In this study the technique of micro-needling was added.
Note: PRP injections followed by micro needling stimulates new hair growth by re-activating dormant follicles and heals the follicle at a cellular level. This results in healthier thicker hair.
In this research from India, patients with mild to moderate androgenic alopecia, aged 18-45 years in the study group were given autologous platelet-rich plasma injections with microneedling over a period of 3 months at 3 weekly interval.
Hair growth started after the first session. Patients’ satisfaction was more than 75% on patients’ subjective hair growth assessment scale.(7)
Doctors and researchers from the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain published their clinical findings of six years experience utilizing PRP for androgenetic alopecia.
Utilizing a standard treatment protocol that they had developed, the University of Barcelona doctors reported that after six PRP session, they were able to achieve these results:
- In MEN with androgenetic alopecia
- successful outcome in 71.4%
- stayed them same 21.4%
- worsening hair loss problems 7.1%
- In WOMEN with androgenetic alopecia
- successful outcome in 73.4%
- stayed them same 16.3%
- worsening hair loss problems 10.2%
The researchers concluded: “PRP together with a periodical application protocol can be considered effective as a coadjuvant therapy in patients who no longer respond to pharmacological treatments.”(8)
Another Spanish university study from May 2017 published new findings suggesting that platelet rich plasma injections played an important role in hair follicle restoration.
In their research, the doctors gave 5 PRP injections to 19 patients with androgenetic alopecia. One year later, after PRP, mean hair density/diameter increased and terminal/vellus hair ratio was also improved. Terminal and Vellus are the two types of hair that grow on the scalp of men with male pattern baldness. Terminal hair is darker, thicker, longer.
In addition patients showed:
- epidermal thickness,
- perifollicular neoangiogenesis (new blood vessel formation in the scalp),
- cell proliferation, and terminal/miniaturized hair ratio improvement. (Miniaturized hair is hair that shrinks over time).
Plasma rich in growth factors seemed to reduce the perivascular inflammatory infiltrate (inflammatory conditions which can lead to hair loss as in androgenetic alopecia ), promote the remodeling of dermo-epidermal tissue, and increase bulge stem cell niches (Hair undergoes a regenerative and rest stage managed by stem cells in a region of the skin known as the “bulge.”) Patients declared an overall positive satisfaction, and a high clinical improvement score was achieved.(9)
- At the University of Connecticut, doctors found that PRP showed a benefit on patients with androgenic alopecia, including increased hair density and quality.(10)
PRP vs Saline in female pattern hair loss
- A new study in the Journal of cosmetic dermatology found PRP to be an effective therapeutic tool for hair loss in women. Thirty female patients with female pattern hair loss were randomly assigned to receive PRP injections into a selected area, and another area of hair loss and was injected with normal saline as a placebo. Sessions were performed weekly for a maximum total of four sessions. Patients were followed up 6 months after the end of last session.There was a statistical significant difference between PRP and placebo areas regarding both hair density and hair thickness as measured by a folliscope. Platelet-rich plasma injections can be regarded as an alternative for the treatment of female pattern hair loss with minimal side-effects and a low cost-to-benefit ratio.(11)
PRP VS. MINOXIDIL 5% and Placebo
Doctors at university medical centers in Egypt compared topical minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma treatments for alopecia areata, a disease that results in one or more areas of coin-sized hairless patches.
- Patients treated with minoxidil 5% and platelets rich plasma both have significant hair growth than placebo.
- Patients treated with platelets rich plasma had an earlier response in the form of hair regrowth, reduction in short vellus hair and dystrophic hair unlike patients treated with minoxidil and control.
With these findings the Egyptian doctors were able to conclude that platelets rich plasma is more effective in the treatment of alopecia areata than topical minoxidil 5%.(12)
Doctors at the University of Rome reported their results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare the hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo.
- In this study of three treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 33.6 hairs in the target area and a mean increase in total hair density of 45.9 hairs per square centimeter compared with baseline values.
- No side effects were noted during treatment. The data clearly highlight the positive effects of PRP injections on male pattern hair loss and absence of major side effects.(13)